In the tests performed due to infertility, sperm deformities are common. However, how these can reduce the chance of pregnancy is not always explained. Recent studies have provided important clues as to the role of the sperm neck in the fertilization of the egg. Our previous knowledge was that the mature sperm neck contains an engine called centriole and that it stimulates the first division upon entering the egg during fertilization. However, according to new research, mature sperm does not carry only one centriole but there is a second one functioning. The second centriole scattered around the neck so that we couldn’t observe it under standard microscopic investigations. When the sperm enter the egg, it reshapes and initiates the division in the egg and thus the embryo develops.
This new design of the sperm neck gives some important clues about the etiologies of some infertility cases. If the centrioles in the sperm neck are not developed enough, whether during natural pregnancy expectations or in IVF cycles, the eggs cannot be divided and the pregnancy will not be seen. Thats one reason why it has been told that when a test tube was made, there was no fertilization, so we canceled.
Sperm neck region disorders appear as the “bent”, “thin” or “thick” neck. Now we understand that such deformities are caused by sperm centriole diseases and prevent the development of a healthy embryo. Centriole diseases are either a congenital genetic defect or due to the an oxidative stresses that the sperm is exposed to harmful factors in our environment. We cannot correct the genetic problems with drugs, but it is possible to protect against harmful factors called oxidative stress. Antioxidant treatments are very successful in this regard. However, the most important thing is a specific treatment plan. In other words, first a correct diagnosis should be made and then a proper treatment should be started.
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Prof.Dr. Kaan Aydos
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